Biourbanism is an interdisciplinary approach to urban planning and design that focuses on creating sustainable, healthy, and livable cities that integrate nature and human well-being.
It emphasises the relationship between the built environment and natural systems, aiming to enhance the quality of life for both people and the environment.
The concept of biourbanism recognises that cities and urban areas have a significant impact on the natural environment, as well as on human health and happiness. It seeks to address the negative effects of urbanisation, such as pollution, overcrowding, and a lack of green spaces, by promoting ecological principles and sustainable practices.
Meanwhile, a smart city is an urban area that utilises technology, data, and connectivity to improve the quality of life for its residents, enhance sustainability, and optimise the efficiency of various urban services and systems.
It integrates information and communication technologies (ICT) with physical infrastructure to create a connected and intelligent urban environment.
A foundation of a smart city is centralisation, population control and mass surveillance, making it technocratic, transhumanist and a violation of liberty.
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