James Lindsay is is a mathematician, author and cultural critic.

He is known for his involvement in the Grievance Studies prank with Peter Boghossian and Helen Pluckrose.

In 2017, Lindsay and Boghossian published a hoax paper titled “The Conceptual Penis as a Social Construct”.

In writing the paper, Lindsay and Boghossian intended to imitate the style of “poststructuralist discursive gender theory”.

The paper argued that the penis should be seen “not as an anatomical organ but as a social construct isomorphic to performative toxic masculinity”


Postmodernism is a philosophical and cultural movement that emerged in the mid-20th century.

It challenges traditional ways of thinking and rejects the idea of absolute truth or universal meanings. Postmodernists believe that reality is subjective and shaped by individual experiences and social constructs. They emphasise the importance of language, power dynamics, and social context in shaping our understanding of the world.

  • Postmodernism promotes the idea that truth and knowledge are subjective.
  • It rejects grand narratives or overarching explanations of history, society, or human nature.
  • It challenges the notion of objective reality and argues that reality is a social construct.
  • Postmodernism often criticises traditional institutions, ideologies, and values, which results in a loss of meaning and purpose for individuals.

In art, postmodernism embraces eclecticism, irony, and pastiche. Artists like Andy Warhol and Jeff Koons have incorporated elements of popular culture and recontextualized them in their works.

In architecture, postmodernism rejects the rigid principles of modernist architecture and, instead, incorporates historical references, ornamentation, and playful designs. The AT&T Building in New York City, designed by Philip Johnson, is an example of postmodern architecture.

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